Modifying virtual machine images

What to do when you have a virtual machine image and for a example you need to some files contents like ssh config or so? Modified images can be uploaded to glance – repeating same step after running several VMs of the same type can be easily avoided in this way.

There are few tools that can be used for that purpose and are extremely powerful (most importantly, these are usually run in place :

Example – install wireshark & nmap in an RHEL minimal install image (we assume there is Internet access from a machine running virt-customize command) – below is basically running locally a VM, modifying it and saving the changes to the image.

Example – modify ssh server config. Following edits a file in a filesystems and saves the changes to the image.

Guestfish gives access to the filesystem – it is more powerful the virt-edit in a sense that it allows browsing through the filesystems rather than modifying a file that you know a path for. You can also create new files and add contents to them. Example sequence of step to perform is as follows:

1) OPTIONAL: export LIBGUESTFS_BACKEND=direct

2) guestfish -a <qcow2/img>

3) run

4) list-filesystems

5) mount <root_filesystem> /

6) modify files

7) umount /

8) exit

Increase LV size of a qcow2 image

When you get a qcow2 image with a given size – it can’t be simply changed on-the-fly while running a VM or by giving just more space to a VM flavor in OpenStack. Situation gets even more complex when image has LVs inside but fortunately by using guestfish and virt-resize image can be suited to one’s needs. Below are the steps that I used to perform such modifications:

Default image: image-name-250G.qcow2
Resized: image-name-750G.qcow2

1. Check which device to resize (this image has LVM created PV on /dev/sda2):

2. Resize image (from 250 to 750GB) – resizing is NOT performed in place:

3. Resize disk and specific device (in this case it is /dev/sda2) and LVM PV:

4. Go to guestfish and use free space on VGS to create additional LV, create additional filesystem and mount point (DISABLE 64bit flag on EXT4, required by this image as it uses outdated e2fsck
that doesn’t support 64bit option):

5. Upload image to glance.